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07 July in the History of Psychology
On July 7:
1843 — Camillo Golgi was born. Golgi was a neurologist who first identified axons and dendrites and their functions. He also identified the sense receptors of muscular sensations. Nobel prize, 1906.
1851 — Lillien Jane Martin was born. Martin worked with G. E. Müller in psychophysics and founded the world's first mental health clinic for normally functioning children and for elderly individuals. She managed the psychology laboratory at Stanford University and was a founder of the Indiana Academy of Science.
1909 — The first surgical transplant of a human nerve was accomplished by Walter Jacoby of Munich. A 4.5-cm segment was transplanted into the hand of a 35-year-old manual laborer, Helmut Mitschke.
1911 — The first university course in vocational guidance began at the Harvard University Summer School under instructor Meyer Bloomfield. While the course did not carry academic credit, 41 students enrolled. Similar courses began at the University of Chicago in 1912 and at Columbia University in 1913.
1915 — Sibylle Korsch Escalona was born. Escalona was a clinical child psychologist best known for her longitudinal studies of the correlation between measures of infant behavior and performance at later ages.
1922 — Irvin Rock was born. Rock is noted for experiments in learning, sensation, and perception. Rock has concentrated on perceptual constancies and on interactions between sense modalities. His pivotal experiment demonstrating one-trial learning of paired-associateslists is often cited.
1925 — Herbert Dörken was born. Dörken has consistently promoted appropriate legislative and insurance industry recognition of the independent practice of professional psychologists. Numerous laws, insurance practices, and hospital accreditation procedures have been affected by his informed advocacy efforts. APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions, 1979.
1965 — The petition to create APA Division 26 (History of Psychology) was submitted. Ronald Mayer represented the petitioning group.
1980 — In its ruling on Parents in Action on Special Education v. Hannon, the U.S. District Court decided that intelligence tests used in the schools for special education placement were not culturally biased against African-American children. The court examined each item on the tests used in the Chicago schools and concluded that nine items on the three tests were "sufficiently suspect" but this number did not invalidate the use of the tests.