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04 December in the History of Psychology


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On December 4:

1834 — Carl Lange was born. Lange offered a theory of emotion similar in content and contemporaneous with that of William James. The James-Lange theory of emotion asserts that emotions are the results, not the causes, of visceral changes.

1925 — Albert Bandura was born. Bandura is a major figure whose contributions have been in moral development, observational learning, self-regulation, and self-referent thought. He developed a comprehensive theory of social learning. APA President, 1974; APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, 1980.

1943 — Allied bombing in World War II destroyed Wilhelm Wundt's original Leipzig psychology laboratory.

1946 — The District of Columbia Psychological Association (DCPA) held its first annual meeting at George Washington University; 81 people attended. Thelma Hunt was temporary chair of the new organization. The DCPA serves both as a state psychological association and as a regional association because many of its members live in Maryland and Virginia.

1959 — The first American behavioral experiment in space was carried out on the rhesus monkey SAM, who performed a shock-avoidance task during a 55-mile high suborbital flight launched at the NASA Flight Center at Wallops Island, Virginia. SAM was trained by W. Lynn Brown. Frederick H. Rohles, Jr., directed the project for the U.S. Air Force. A second such flight was made on January 21, 1960.

1962 — Martin T. Orne's article "On the Social Psychology of the Psychology Experiment: With Particular Reference to Demand Characteristics and Their Implications" was published in the American Psychologist. By 1979, this article had been cited over 740 times and was featured as a "citation classic" by the journal Current Contents.

1987 — The Council for Applied Master's Programs in Psychology, formed in 1986 within the Southeastern Psychological Association, became a national organization at its meeting in Atlanta. Richard D. Tucker of the University of Central Florida was president of the organization at the time.