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26 April in the History of Psychology

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On April 26:

1710 — Thomas Reid was born. Reid was the first proponent of the Scottish school of philosophy. His philosophy was an attempt to reconcile a belief in the divine origin of ideas with mounting evidence favoring empiricism. He contended that knowledge of objects and the faculties for mental activities are innate properties of the soul, but that they are activated by experience.

1848 — The Highgate Asylum for Idiots was established. This was England's first formal institution for people with mental retardation and was sponsored by the Duke of Cambridge.

1889 — Leonard Thompson Troland was born. Troland had many scientific and technical interests. In psychology, he published on optics, vision, emotion, and psychophysiology. He was co-inventor of the Technicolor film process, and the basic unit of retinal illumination is named for him. The National Academy of Sciences' Troland Award is given annually for psychological research.

1890 — Harold E. Burtt was born. Burtt was a prominent teacher and author in the fields of industrial, consumer, legal, and aviation psychology. His research touched on aviator selection, lie detection, advertising effectiveness, and industrial efficiency.

1900 — Ernst Kris was born. Kris modified traditional psychoanalysis by emphasizing ego functions and applied this approach to the study of art and the study of children's behavior.

1908 — The First International Congress of Psychoanalysis was held in Salzburg, Austria. Forty-two Freudian psychologists attended.

1917 — The Judge Baker Foundation opened in Boston under the direction of psychologist William Healy. The main interest of the clinic was juvenile delinquency research and treatment. In 1933, the clinic's name changed to the Judge Baker Guidance Center. As an outgrowth of this clinic, the J. J. Putnam Children's Center, focusing on preschool children, was opened in Roxbury in 1941.

1922 — Carl E. Seashore was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Seashore was the seventh psychologist so honored.

1927 — Percy W. Bridgman's book The Logic of Modern Physics, an exposition of the concept of operationism, was published.

1936 — The German Institute for Psychological Research and Psychotherapy was organized. Psychiatrist Matthias Heinrich Göring, cousin of Reich Marshal Hermann Göring, assumed leadership of the new institute. The institute, commonly called the Göring Institute, promoted a non-Freudian, pro-Nazi, anti-Semitic view of psychotherapy.

1949 — The Ohio Psychological Association was incorporated. George A. Kelly, Ruth Ortleb, and Ronald R. Greene signed the articles of incorporation.

1975 — Sensory psychologist Dorothea Jameson was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Jameson was the third woman psychologist elected to the Academy.

1978 — The Ohio legislature passed a law requiring insurance carriers to provide mental health outpatient services in all contracts covering inpatient services.

1983 — Public Law 98-24 mandated a peer review process for programs administered by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse.