23 July in the Hist...
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23 July in the History of Psychology


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On July 23:

1895 — On this night or the following night, Sigmund Freud dreamt about a patient named Irma. Upon awakening, Freud made notes about his dream and subsequently analyzed the content of the dream. This was the first dream he analyzed and it became the prototype for his later technique of dream analysis.

1902 — Theodore C. Schneirla was born. Schneirla was the foremost American comparative psychologist of the mid-1900s. His empirical work was based on observations of army ants. His "biphasic A-W theory" described behavior in terms of approach and avoidance of points in the environment. His Principles of Animal Psychology (1935, with N. R. F. Maier) was the leading text in its field.

1914 — Carlton Benjamin Goodlet was born. Goodlet directed his efforts as a behavioral scientist to fighting the effects of racism.

1926 — Florence Goodenough's Goodenough Intelligence Test for Kindergarten-Primary was published.

1930 — The first volume of Carl Murchison's A History of Psychology in Autobiography was published. Autobiographies of James M. Baldwin, Mary Whiton Calkins, Edouard Clapar�de, Raymond Dodge, Pierre Janet, Joseph Jastrow, Frederico Kiesow, William McDougall, Carl Seashore, Charles Spearman, Carl Stumpf, William Stern, Howard C. Warren, Theodor Ziehen, and Hendrick Zwaardemaker were included.

1940 — William G. Chase was born. Chase published a variety of articles on experimental cognitive psychology, focusing on sentence comprehension, memory span, and perception in the game of chess. He was interested in spatial knowledge and chunking strategies for memory.