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22 September in the History of Psychology


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On September 22:

1791 — Michael Faraday was born. Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction made possible the experimental study of the functional nature of the nervous system and contributed the idea of force fields to Gestalt theory. He also invented the stroboscope.

1904 — Robert MacDougall and Edward B. Titchener addressed the Section on Experimental Psychology of the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at the St. Louis World's Fair. The presentations were part of a week of scholarly activities accompanying the World's Fair.

1910 — Robert L. Thorndike was born. Thorndike's career focused on personnel selection, psychometrics, and ability measurement. He was president of the Psychometric Society, the American Educational Research Association, and three divisions of the APA.

1952 — The Annual Congress of Anesthetists began in Virginia Beach, Virginia. At this meeting, Virginia Apgar presented her 10-point system for rating the brain functioning of newborn infants. The Apgar score was based on heart rate, respiration, reflex irritability, muscle tone, and skin color. Apgar's contribution was commemorated in 1994, when a U.S. postage stamp was issued in her honor.

1980 — The antidepressant drug Asendin (amoxapine; Lederle Laboratories) was approved for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Amoxapine is a dibenzoxazepine antidepressant. It may operate by reducing reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and blocking dopamine receptors in the brain.

1993 — The first meeting of the National Academy of Sciences Board on Testing and Assessment was held in Washington, DC. Psychologist Richard Atkinson chaired the board, the first National Academy of Sciences standing committee on this subject. The board was charged with a scientific examination of testing issues in educational and occupational settings.