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21 April in the History of Psychology
On March 21:
1889 — Dean A. Worcester was born. As an educational psychologist, Worcester's interests were in measurement and services for children of high intellectual abilities. He established the first psychology laboratory in New Mexico.
1897 — John Ridley Stroop was born. Stroop's 1933 doctoral dissertation research asked participants to name the color of ink in which the name of the same color or a different color is printed. He found much longer response times when the ink color and color name are different than when they are the same. The "Stroop effect" has been the subject of hundreds of studies since Stroop's results were published in 1935.
1898 — Morris Viteles was born. Viteles pioneered the field of industrial psychology with a study of streetcar motormen in Milwaukee in 1920, which led to some of the first industrial placement tests. Viteles's career focused on industrial training, aptitude testing, and organizational psychology. American Psychological Foundation Psychological Professional Gold Medal, 1988.
1952 — The first forms of the Edwards Personal Preference Survey (EPPS) were published. The EPPS is designed to measure a set of personality variables drawn from Henry Murray's theory of needs. The needs for achievement, affiliation, dominance, and aggression, for example, have been the focus of much research.
1955 — With the signature of Governor Albert D. Rosellini, Washington became the ninth state to adopt legislation regulating the professional practice of psychology. Ruth Levy was the chair of the state psychological association's legislation committee.
1960 — Eleanor J. Gibson and Richard Walk's article "The Visual Cliff" was published in Scientific American. The article reported studies of depth perception in infants to a broad audience.
1962 — The Oregon Psychological Association was incorporated.
1962 — The province of Quebec adopted its psychologist certification law.
1968 — A national invitational meeting of school psychologists in Columbus, Ohio, resulted in the formation of the National Association of School Psychologists. The Ohio School Psychology Association organized the meeting.
1968 — Governor Robert McNair signed South Carolina's original psychologist licensure act into law. The law took effect immediately.
1975 — The first Annual Research Conference on the Profoundly Mentally Retarded was held at the Monterey Peninsula, California.
1980 — The APA's Arthur W. Melton Library was dedicated.
1986 — The first biennial conference of the Society for Research on Adolescence began in Madison, Wisconsin.
1990 — Peter M. Bentler's article "Comparative Fix Indexes in Structural Models" was published in Psychological Bulletin. The article among the most frequently cited in the early 1990s.