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13 September in the History of Psychology

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On September 13:

1848 — Dynamite blew a tamping iron through the brain of Phineas P. Gage, a 25-year-old foreman of the Rutland and Burlington Railroad. The incident is often cited in psychology texts because Gage survived the accident, but the brain injury radically altered his personality. He became indifferent to others, impulsive, and at times grossly profane. Gage died on May 21, 1861.

1866 — Adolph Meyer was born. Meyer was the most prominent American psychiatrist of his time. His holistic approach, which he called psychobiology, recommended that the organic, psychological, and social factors affecting the patient must all be considered in diagnosis and treatment. He suggested the appropriateness of the term mental hygiene.

1886 — Sigmund Freud married Martha Bernays in Wandsbeck, Austria.

1890 — Volume 1 of William James's Principles of Psychology was published.

1931 — Clara Mayo was born. Mayo's goals were to understand and to help alleviate prejudice, sexism, and racism. As an applied social psychologist, she compared impression formation and nonverbal behavior of participants with different gender and ethnic backgrounds. Mayo spent a significant amount of time in courtrooms as an expert witness on the effects of prejudice.

1950 — The National Mental Health Association was created by a merger of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, the National Mental Health Foundation, and the Psychiatric Foundation.

1977 — Robert A. Baron's book Human Aggression was published.

1982 — The International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS) was admitted to the prestigious International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), ending 30 years of denied petitions for membership. The action was taken at the ICSU's General Assembly in Cambridge, England. The IUPsyS was represented by vice president Mark R. Rosenzweig.