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13 June in the History of Psychology
On June 13:
1771 — A royal charter established New York Hospital. The cornerstone was laid on July 27, 1773. Although New York Hospital was a general medical facility, people with mental illness were admitted for treatment. These services and ward space were moved into a separate building in 1808 and became known as the Bloomingdale Asylum at the time of a second move in 1821.
1773 — Thomas Young was born. Young was an English physicist who applied Newton's work on the spectrum to color vision. Because all colors can be produced by red, blue, and green light, Young proposed that there are three color receptors in the retina. This idea was expanded by Hermann von Helmholtz and became known as the Young-Helmholtz theory. Young, with Jean-François Champollion, became famous for deciphering the hieroglyphics on the Rosetta Stone.
1796 — The first physician, Thomas Fowler, was hired at The Retreat, in York, England. The first patients, Mary Holt, Rachel Row, and John Ellis, had arrived earlier in the month. William Tuke's York Retreat was one of the first mental institutions to use provide outdoor tasks, good nutrition, and humane treatment instead of the use of mechanical restraints and confinement.
1841 — The second mental hospital in Canada, the Provincial Asylum in Toronto, was opened.
1876 — William S. Gosset was born. Writing under the name "Student," Gosset originated and described the t test. His employer, the Guinness Brewery, prohibited him from publishing under his own name.
1886 — Ludwig II, the psychotic king of Bavaria, jumped off a bridge into the Lake of Starnberg with his psychiatrist, Bernard von Gudden. Both men drowned. This obviously was before psychiatry learned to cope with transference.
1893 — John E. Anderson was born. Anderson's research interests were primarily in experimental animal and child psychology. At the University of Minnesota he was director of the child welfare institute. APA President, 1943.
1955 — The first convention of the Hawaii Psychological Association was held in Honolulu, under the leadership of president W. Edgar Vinacke. Herbert B. Weaver was elected president for the coming year.
1959 — Eighteenth century histologist Marie François Xavier Bichat appeared on a French postage stamp issued on this day.
1962 — John E. Overall and Donald R. Gorham's article "The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale" was published in Psychological Reports. By 1977, this article had been cited over 533 times and appeared as a "citation classic" in a 1979 issue of the journal Current Contents.
1987 — The first National Conference on Graduate Education in Psychology since 1958 began in Salt Lake City, Utah. Recommendations were made on graduate curriculum, settings, quality, accountability, recruitment and retention, student diversity, and student socialization. The group fully recognized the PsyD and EdD degrees and urged greater diversity in clinical personnel.