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12 March in the History of Psychology

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On March 12:

1685 — George Berkeley was born. Berkeley, the Bishop of Cloyne, was an early associationist whose principle of "subjective idealism" asserted the primacy of mind over matter. Berkeley proposed that sensations and ideas are the fundamental units of reality and are reflections of the mind of God.

1843 — Gabriel Tarde was born. Tarde was a sociologist whose theory of imitation, a related theory of crowd behavior, and writing on economic psychology make him an important figure in the history of social psychology.

1892 — James M. Baldwin's Psychology Applied to the Art of Teaching was published.

1906 — Josephine Rohrs Hilgard was born. Hilgard's interests were in child psychiatry, especially the experience of "object loss" in children, hypnosis, and sibling rivalry and identification.

1907 — Marion A. Wenger was born. Wenger's interests were in human development and the function of the autonomic nervous system in emotional expression. Wenger's monograph "Studies of Autonomic Balance in Army Air Forces Personnel" is a classic in its field.

1960 — The first published announcement of the effects of chlordiazepoxide (Librium) appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The author was Titus H. Harris.

1985 — The best-selling novel When the Bough Breaks, written by psychologist Jonathan Kellerman, was published. Kellerman's story involved psychologist hero Alex Delaware in a case of murder and child sexual abuse.

1986 — Herbert A. Simon was awarded the National Medal of Science for his work on artificial intelligence, cognition, decision making, and rational behavior. Simon and Allen Newell wrote the first heuristic problem-solving computer program in 1955.

1986 — The APA journal Psychology and Aging was first published. M. Powell Lawton was the journal's first editor.