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12 January in the History of Psychology
On January 12:
1746 — Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was born. Pestalozzi was a founder of modern methods of education and child study. His approach to education involved carefully observing the child's capabilities and tailoring learning activities to those capabilities.
1833 — The State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester, Massachusetts, now named Worcester State Hospital, was opened for the admission of patients. The first patient was received on January 19, 1833. Samuel B. Woodward was the hospital's first superintendent and held that office until 1846.
1844 — Dorothea Dix submitted a memorial to the New York state legislature, the second of many such documents in her international crusade for improved treatment conditions for people with mental illness. The first was presented to the Massachusetts legislature in 1843. Dix documented widespread filthy, brutalizing, and degrading conditions. Her public exposure of these practices resulted in new facilities and more humane care in many states.
1861 — James Mark Baldwin was born. Baldwin was an early developmental and theoretical psychologist who founded the Psychological Review, Psychological Monographs, and, with James McKeen Cattell, Psychological Bulletin. APA President, 1897.
1896 — David Wechsler was born. Wechsler's inclusion of motor performance items in intelligence tests broadened the generality and validity of measures of intelligence. The concept of deviation IQ is another of Wechsler's contributions. APA Distinguished Professional Contribution Award, 1973.
1898 — The first meeting of the Childhood Society of Great Britain was held. Sir Douglas Galton, chairman of the society, presided over the meeting.
1919 — Seymour B. Sarason was born. Sarason has focused on educational, school, and community psychology. He played a central role in founding the Yale University clinical program, was an early promoter of deinstitutionalization, defined test anxiety, and cofounded the Yale Psycho-Educational Clinic (1961). APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, 1984.
1927 — Marilyn K. Rigby was born. Rigby's research touched on a number of areas, but she was best known for excellence in teaching and for promoting the activities of Division 2 (Teaching of Psychology) of the APA.
1946 — Johann Pestalozzi, a pioneer in child study and educational psychology, appeared on a postage stamp issued by Switzerland, his native land, on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of his birth.
1949 — The organizational meeting of the Hawaii Psychological Association was held at the University of Hawaii. Theodore Forbes was elected president.
1953 — The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis was first published by the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. Martin T. Orne was the journal's editor.
1959 — Volume 1 of Sigmund Koch's Psychology: A Study of a Science was published. The volume covered sensory, perceptual, and physiological psychology. Six volumes in this series were eventually published between 1959 and 1963.
1965 — In a special message to Congress entitled "Toward Full Educational Opportunity," President Lyndon Johnson described the beginnings of Project Head Start, a nationwide preschool program based on research demonstrating the effectiveness of early intervention in reducing learning deficits in disadvantaged children.